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英语教案-unit1 Madame Curie教学目标

英语教案-unit1 Madame Curie教学目标为http://www.170yx.com整理发布,类型为高三英语教案,本站还有更多关于人教版高三英语教案,高三英语教案下载,高三英语教案免费下载,免费教案 - 英语教案 - 高三英语教案的文章。

教学目标

  1.交际用语;掌握交际用语中关于Certainty and uncertainty 的使用,并使学生能够熟练运用下列表达:
    Perhaps Ill go to that one.
    Maybe it was useful for some people.
    Im not sure if/whether…
    I doubt if hell be asked to speak again next year.
    Im not sure that …
    Im sure …
  2. 语言点:掌握词语succeed , devote, set off, pay off 等的用法
  3.语法:复习定语从句的用法
  4.语言运用及情感,价值观:
  运用所学语言,完成教科书和练习册中所规定的听说读写的任务;阅读课文Madame Curie, 确切理解,让学生了解科学家居里夫妇一生为人类作出的贡献,引导他们学习居里夫妇从事科学事业所表现出来的毅力,勇气和献身精神,并完成有关课文内容的练习。

教学建议Lesson 1


教学建议


教学教法建议:
  由于高三学年的学习面临着高考任务,因此应从第一节课开始,向学生宣讲突出语篇,强调应用,注意实际。这十二个字为高考题原则。从现在起以语篇为基本单位,进行全面的综合的高考复习,本学年除要学完高三两册课本内容外,还需要有一定时间进行各项分类讲解与练习以及综合试卷的模拟练习,因此,对于课本内容的处理应根据本校,本教学班的具体英语水平及程度进行适当调整。若学生程度较好,可将课文主要作为阅读材料进行处理,建议每单元(包括听力)用三课时完成。若学生程度较弱,对课文内容的处理可以从细,尤其是对每篇文章结构,主旨大意,难句,高考中常考到的词语用法,异同辨析等的讲解,练习与检测。当然,对于部分课后练习以及课文内容依然要做适当删减,删减标准,以上述十二字原则为准。以保证综合复习时间。需要教师注意的是,教学速度的加快极易导致教学过程流于形式,难于保证效果,因此,要特别注意检查落实的实施。例如每单元以语篇为单位检测语法点、短语及词汇,并记分。就本单元而言,因有较为重要的语法定语从句,建议用四至七课时完成。两篇课文中的语法点和辨析内容较多,可不必一次性讲完,每课时最多处理四至五个。资源中提供的资料要根据高考要求经过适当裁剪教与学生。另外,在作词语辨析时,应尽量从原有的知识入手,发挥学生的主观能动性,多让他们张嘴,或将需要辨析的词语作为作业布置下去,由学生去找出异同,教师后来作出评价和取舍。课文结构和内容的分析可与语法点的讲解分开处理,若条件许可,个别词语可通过让学生课上课下造句的形式加以掌握和强化。

Lesson 1 词汇辨析:

1. Im not sure whether to go to the one about accidents. 我还没有决定是否去听那个有关事故的报告。
  (1) be sure + whether等连词+不定式
   be sure + of/about短语
   be sure + that-clause(从句)
  这些句型表示主语对所提到的未来或当时的事情有无把握。e.g。
  ① She isnt sure whether to stay in New York next month.下个月是否留在纽约,她还不能肯定。(注:不定式的逻辑主语与全句主语一致)
  ② I wasnt sure about/of the way,so I asked someone.我对于怎么走没有把握,所以我就问人了。
  ③Im sure hell come.我肯定他会来。
  (2)be sure to do sth.表示一定会...,必定会...。e.g.
  Its a really good film-youre sure to like it.它确实是一部好电影,你一定会喜欢
  (3)be sure作有把握解时,还可用feel sure。e.g.
  ①Ive never felt sure of success.我从来没有像现在这样对胜利有充分的信心。
  ②I feel sure we have disturbed you of your work.我确信我们已打扰了你的工作。
  (4)be sure 与be certain
   be certain意思是确信,有把握,用法与be sure同,即:
   be certain + 不定式
   be certain + of/about-phrase
   be certain + that-clause
  但sure强调主语的心理状态,指主语心中无疑或十分确信、有把握,着重于人的内心世界,故其主语只能是人,且不能用来形容事件。所以当主语是表示事件的名词、代词或it时,只能用certain. certain 着重说明有肯定的理由和证据使人相信或确信,强调内心世界之外的证据。e.g.
  ①it is certain to rain.天肯定会下雨。
  ②His information was by no means certain.他的消息-点也不可靠。
  ③ Its almost certain that the government will lose the next election.几乎可以肯定现政府会在下次选举中输掉。
  ④We are sure/certain of victory.我们确信自己会获胜。
  (5)make sure表示查明,弄确实和(采取行动)确保,其用法是:
   make sure + of-phrase
   make sure + that-clause
  ① I think I locked the door,but Ill just go back and make sure of it/that I did.
  我想我是锁了门,但我还是回去查看一下吧。
  ②They made sure of winning by scoring two goals in the last five minutes.
  他们在最后五分钟进了两个球,确保了这场比赛的胜利。
2. Perhaps Ill go to that one。也许我会去听那个报告。
  Maybe it was useful for some people.它(指报告)对一些人或许有益。
  这两句都不表示可能性的句型。此外还有probably和possibly。注意它们的区别。
  (1)maybe大概,或许,意思与perhaps很接近,多数地方可以换用,但不及perhaps正式,多用于口语,还可用于礼貌的建议或请求,多用于句首或句末,多用于美国。
  (2)perhaps也许,可能,大概,可与maybe换用,但比maybe正式。perhaps还可用于建议,清求及温和的命令,英国用法。
  (3)probably大概,很可能,所表示的可能性虽不是完全肯定,但比maybe,perhaps实现的可能性大多与动词连用。
  (4)possibly可能地,也许,或许,较probably意味弱,在肯定句里表可能性很小,在否定、疑问句中与can,could连用,表示无沦如何也不,肯定句中与can,could连用,以加强语气,表示设法,竭力地。e.g.


英语教案-unit1 Madame Curie教学目标由www.170yx.com收集及整理,转载请说明出处www.170yx.com
www.170yx.com   ①Perhaps/Maybe Ill go.我或许会去。
  ②This is perhaps his best novel yet.这也许是他迄今为止写得最好的一部小说。
  ③Perhaps/Maybe you would like to join us for lunch.也许您愿意和我们一块去吃午饭。(表请求)
  ④Youd better go now,perhaps.您最好还是现在就走。(表命令)
  ⑤John probably told his father all about the matter;he usually tells him everything.约翰很可能把这一切都告诉了他的父亲;他通常对父亲是什么都说的。(表可能性很大)
  ⑥Ill do all I possibly can.我将尽我的所能去做。(与can连用)
  ⑦I cant possibly drink any more.我无论如何不能再喝了。
4.I doubt if hell be asked to speak again next year.我怀疑明年是否会再次邀请他发言。
  用doubt表示怀疑的句型:
  (1)doubt + that-clause。e.g.
   I doubt that she will get the job.我不相信她会得到那个工作。
  (2)doubt + 名词/代词。e.g.
   I doubt his honesty.我对他的诚实表示怀疑。
  (3)doubt + v.-ing form。e.g.
   We ever doubted being able to finish the work in time.我们曾经对能否及时完成这工作怀疑过。
  (4)doubt + of-phrase。e.g.
   They have never doubted of success.他们从未对取得成功有什么怀疑。
  如果要表示对……没有怀疑/疑虑,则用句型There is no doubt about sth./as to sth./that-clause。
  ①There is no doubt about the truth of the news.=There is no doubt as to the troth Of the news.消息的真实性无可怀疑。
  ②There is no doubt that the news is true.=No doubt that the news is true. 消息无疑是真实的。


教学建议Lesson 2

教学建议


Lesson 2词语辨析:
  2.There was a certain mineral which was even more radioactive than uranium.
  此句中的certain 是形容词,做定语,意思是某,某一,某种,一定的,用来表达:
  (1)不具体指明的某个,某些,或 知而不说的某事物,后接名词单复数形式均可。e.g.
  ① Water can be changed into ice or steam under certain conditions.水在一定的条件下可以变成冰或蒸汽。
  ②.He didnt come for a certain reason.由于某种原因,他没来。
  (2) 表示一个知之不详的事物。e.g. A certain Ms Jones phoned you today. 有位琼斯女士今天给你来过电话。
  certain与some 的区别:
  certain , some 都可作形容词,作定语,表示某,某个,前面说到certain 作定语表示不具体指明的某个,某些或知而不说的事物,或表示一个知之不祥的事物。而some则用来表示不确定的或不能够具体说明的某个人或某物,即不可知的某事物,只修饰单数可数名词,且不与冠词连用。e.g.
  a. He went to some place in Africa. 他去了非洲的某个地方。
  b. b. Some man asked to see you just now. 有个人刚才要求见你。
5. As months went by,the work seemed endless.时间一个月一个月地过去了,而他们的工作似乎并无止境。
 (1)此句中go by是动词短语,意思是(时光)逝去(不及物性动词短语)。还可作经过(某处)(及物或不及物性动词短语)。e.g.
  ①Two years went by.两年过去了。
  ②We waited for the procession to go by。我们等着游行队伍经过。
  ③A truck went by us at full speed.一辆卡车从我们身旁全速通过。
  ④She let the chance go by.她错过了机会。
  (2)go by还可作依照,遵循,依据……办事解,及物性动词短语.e.g.
  He always goes by the rules.他总是按规则办事。
  (3)go by还可意为根据……作出判?quot;。e.g.
  Going by her clothes,she must be very rich.从她的衣着来判断,她很有钱。
  go by 与 pass by,pass的区别:
 (1)go by和pass by是同义短语,都可指经过(某处),go by是动词+副词结构,意为从……旁边经过,经过。pass by意为经过,通过,从……旁边经过,指经过人或物的面前或旁边而不停顿,也不注意所经过的人或物是谁。pass意为经过,指在人或物的面前或旁边经过,侧重经过的动作。用pass by时,侧重不加注意的意味,但在实际上,pass和pass by常被毫无区别地使用。e.g.
  ①The bus went by the stop without stopping.那辆公共汽车停都没停就从汽车站开了过去。
  ②A car went by.一辆汽车驶过去。
  ③He passed by me without noticing me.他从我身边走过而没注意到我。
  ④I pass the church on my way to school.在我上学的路上经过教堂。
  ⑤She waved at me as she passed(by).她经过时向我挥了挥手。
  (2)go by,pass by和pass又都可用来指时间流逝,过去。e.g.
  ①Several years went by before they met again.他们过了好几年才再次见面。
  ②A year passed by,and still she had not found a suitable job.一年过去了,但她仍然没找到合适的工作。
  ③Two years has passed since I entered this school.我进这所学校已两年了。
8.Its rays could go through every mineral except lead.它的射线可以穿透除铝以外的所有其他矿物质。
  (1)此句中go through是动词短语,意思是穿过,贯穿,后接名词。e.g.
  The train went through some tunnels.火车通过了若干隧道。
  (2)go through还可指(法律等)被通过,作不及物或及物性动词短语。e.g.
  ①The bill has gone through without a vote.该法案未经投票表决就通过了。
  ②The plan must go through several stages.这项计划必须经过几个阶段才能通过。
  (3)go through还可作遭受,经历,忍受解,及物性短语动词。e.g.
  The country has gone through too many wars.这个国家经历了太多的战争。
  (4)go through还可指用掉,花掉,及物性动词短语。e.g.


英语教案-unit1 Madame Curie教学目标由www.170yx.com收集及整理,转载请说明出处www.170yx.com
www.170yx.com   Have you gone through all your money already?你已经把所有的钱都花光了吗?
  (5)go through还可作仔细检查,审查,及物性短语动词。e.g.
   Im sure its there-Ill go through the file again.我确信它就在那儿,  我要再次仔细检查一下那文件。
10.She refused to treat these new discoveries as though they belonged to her,and instead shared all her knowledge with the whole scientific world.她不同意把这些新发现看作是属于她自己的东西,而是献出自己的全部知识,与整个科学界共享。
  (1)此句中as though = as if意思是好像,仿佛,作连词,后接方式状语从句。从句的谓语动词一般要用虚拟语气,即动词用过去时或过去完成时。e.g.
  ①She always talks to me as though/if she were/was my sister.她总是以我妹妹的口气跟我说话。
  ②He walked slowly as if he had hurt his leg.他慢慢地走,好像腿受伤的样子。
  但as though/if从句在look,seem后,从句的谓语动词可不用虚拟语气。e·g.
  ①She looks as if shes going to cry.她看起来要哭似的。
  ②It seems as though he has been at the scene of the crime.看样子他好像曾在犯罪现场。
  (2)句中belong to意为属于,及物性短语动词。注意此词组无被动浯态,无进行时态。e.g.
  That dictionary belongs to me.那本辞典是我的。
  注意此词组还可意味是……的一员,与……有关联。e.g.
  I belong to the tennis club.我是这个网球俱乐部的会员。
  (3)句中share...with意思是与……共用,分享,分担。e.g.
  ① The boy shared his toy with other children.那男孩把他的玩具拿出来,和其他小孩子一起玩。
  ②Would you share your newspaper with me?我们-起看报好吗?
  share...with与share...between/among 的区别:
  share...with意思是与……分享,共用,分担,而share...between/among是指在……之间分配,均分。如果所分配范围在……之间,是几个单数名词,则用between;如果是复数名词,between和among都可以。e.g.
  ① He shared his property between his wife,his daughter and his son.他把他的财产分给了他的妻子、女儿和儿子。
  ② Mother is sharing the cakes among/between the boys to make sure that every boy gets some.妈妈在给孩子们分糕点以确保每个孩子得到一份。
11.Which mineral would you use to protect yourself against radium?你会用哪种矿物来保护自己不受镭的伤害呢? ,
  句中protect sb./sth.against意思是防御,保护……使不受(伤害),这里介词against也可换成from,即protect sb./sth.from..。e.g.
  ①A line of forts was built along the border to protect the country against attack.边界沿线构筑了碉堡,以防敌人进攻该国。
  ②He is wearing sunglasses to protect his eyes from the strong sunlight.  他戴着太阳镜以挡强烈的阳光。
  说明:protect against...和protect...from用法基本相同。防御较为严重的伤害,通常用介词against,一般情况常用from,但区分不是很严格。e.g.
  Cares should be taken at all times to protect the equipment against/from dust and damp.应当经常注意保护设备,不使其积尘和受潮。

教学建议Lesson 3


教学建议


Lesson 3词语辨析:
1.polonium is used to set off a nuclear bomb.钋用来引爆核弹。
  (1)本句中set off 意思是使……爆炸,及物性短浯动词:e.g.
  They set off the fireworks as soon as it got dark.天一黑他们就放焰火(烟花)。
  (2)set off 还可指出发,动身,不及物性短语动词。e.g.
  They set off in search of the lost child.他们出发去寻找那个丢失的孩子。
  (3)set off 还可意为引起,触发,及物性短语动词。e.g.
  ①That strike set off a series of strikes throughout the country.那次罢工引发了全国一系列的罢工。
  ②A letter from home set off an attack of homesickness.一封家书触发了他的思乡病的发作。
  (4)set off 还可指使某人突然产生某种活动,其后往往接v.-ing,即set s.b.off doing sth.e.g.
  Whatever you say will set her off crying.不管你说什么都会使她哭泣。
  (5)set off还可指衬托,使更明显。e.g.
  This gold frame sets off your painting well.这金色的框架把你的画衬托得非常好看。
  搭配辨析set off 与setout,set about
  (1)set out也可意为出发,动身,用法与set off同,不及物性短语动词。e.g.
  They set out/off on a sightseeing tour.他们动身出去观光旅行。
  (2)set out还可指开始着手,做某事,后接动词不定式。e.g.
  We set out to paint the whole house but finished only the front part.我们为油漆整座房子开始干起来,但只完成了前面部分。
  (3)set out可指陈列,摆出,安排,及物性短语动词。e.g.
  ①Set out the chairs for the meeting in rows of ten.摆好开会的坐椅,每排十张。
  ②The meal was set out on a long table.饭菜摆在一张长桌子上。
  (4)set out还可指表明,陈述,阐述(事实、理由等)。e.g.
  The reasons for my decision are set out in my report.我作出决定的理由在我的报告中作了阐述。
  (5)set about意为开始做或处理,着手,其后接名词或v.-ing,即set about + sth./doing sth.e.g.
  ① The sooner we set about it the sooner well finish.我们越早开始就可以越早完成这件工作。
  ②We set about cleaning up mess.我们开始把乱七八糟的东西打扫干净。
  (6)set about还可指攻击,及物性短语动词。e.g.
  Our dog set about the postman.我们的狗追着要咬邮递员。


英语教案-unit1 Madame Curie教学目标由www.170yx.com收集及整理,转载请说明出处www.170yx.com
www.170yx.com   (1)be used as与be used for,be used to sth./doing sth,be used to do    sth.的区别:
  be used as和be used for都意为用作,不同的是as后通常接名词,for后多接v.-ing;be used to sth./doing sth.意为习惯于某事/做某事,to在这里是介词;be used to do sth.意为被用于做某事;used to do 意为过去常常做某事,used to这里是助动词:e.g.
  ①During the war the castle was used as a prison.战争期间城堡用来作监狱。
  ②During the war the castle was used for keeping prisoners in.战争期间城堡用来监禁囚犯。
  ③Im used to the noise.我对这噪音已经习惯了。
  ④Im not used to getting up early.我不习惯于早起。
  ⑤Wind can be used to produce electricity·风可以用来发电。
  ⑥This river used to be clean.这条河以前是干净的。
  (2)a cure for...与cure sb.of...的区别:
  a cure for...意为对…的治疗,cure这里作名词;cure sb. of意为治好或治愈某人的...病,cure这里作及物动词。e.g.
  ①This is a certain cure for your laziness.这是治懒惰的特效药
  ②Moving to the country cured her of asthma.搬到乡下她的哮喘就好了。
  be admired as与be admired for的区别:
  (1)be admired as意为被当作……为人们所钦佩,as是介词,意为作为。
  (2)be admired for意为因(某种原因)而为人们所钦佩,for是介词,表示原因。e.g.
  He is really admired for his frankness.他以他的坦诚实在为人们所钦佩。
  pay off与pay for,pay,pay...for...的区别:
  pay off + debt指还清债款
  pay for sth.指对(某物)的款
  pay sb.some money意为.付给某人(多少)钱。
  pay sb./money for sth.意为付给(某人款/钱买某物)。 e.g.
  ①She tried to leave the shop without paying for the dress.她企图买衣服不付款就离开商店。
  ②He paid the servant 5 dollars to wash his car.他付给佣人五元钱叫他洗车。
  ③He paid her for the work.他付给她工钱。
  ④I paid £200 for the painting.这幅画我花了二百英镑。
  ⑤Did you pay him l00 dollars for that old bike你付给他那辆旧自行车了吗?

语法教学:
  复习定语从句
  定语从句分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。
  1) 限定性定语从句:限定性定语从句对所修饰的先行词起限定作用。 限定性定语从句中关系词的使用列表如下:
  在句中的作用关系词说明
  主语 关系代词:who/that(指人) which/that(指物 关系代词不能省略
  宾语 who/whom/that(指人)
  which/that(指物) 关系代词在非正式
  文体中可以省略
  定语 whose 名词前表所有关系
  介词+关系代词 whom(指人) which(指物) 关系代词不能用who或that
  whose(定语) 名词前表所有关系
  状语 关系副词:when(时间) where(地点)why(原因) 先行词为表时间、
  地点等的名词

  例:
  ①Anna was an American writer who/that interviewed Mao Ze dong in Yaan.(指人作主语)
  安娜是一位当年曾在延安采访毛泽东的美国作家。
  ②The friends whom/who/that we met in the park were from Egypt.(指人作宾语)
  我们在公园里遇见的朋友来自埃及。
  ③A taxi is a car (that/which)you can hire.(指物作宾语) 出租车是你可以租用的小汽车。
  ④Many forests where the animals lived were destroyed.(作状语)
  动物栖息生活的许多森林遭到破坏。
  ⑤We ought to help those families whose men are in the army.(作定语)
  我们应该帮助那些男人在部队的家庭。
  ⑥He looked at the box from which the voice came.(介词+关系代词)
  他看着那只传出声音的方箱子。

  2)非限定性定语从句:非限定性.定语从句对所修饰的先行词(句子)起补充说明的作用,不起限定作用。从句中使用关系代词who,whom,which,whose和关系副词when,where等,不使用关系代词that,作宾语的whom不能用who代替。
  例:They visited the city of Hangzhou,which is famous for its beautiful scene.他们参观了杭州城,它以风景秀丽而闻名。
  非限定性从句中关系词指代整个句子时,用关系代词which。试比较:
  ①Big floods hit some parts of China in the summer of 1998,which caused a great damage to the country.1998年夏中国部分地区遭受特大洪灾,给国家带来了巨大损失。(指代整个句子)
  ②They got married on July 1,1997,when Hong Kong returned to our motherland.他们于1997年7月1日喜结良缘,香港在这一天回归祖国。(指代时间作状语)
  学习中应注意的问题(一)
  1)先行词为表示时间或地点的名词在从句中作主语或宾语时关系词的使用。当先行词为表示时间或地点的名词时,在从句中作主语或宾语时,应使用代词which或that,不能用副词when或where.
  ①a:Ill never forget the days which/that I spent in the country.(which作spent的宾语)
  b:Ill never forget the days when I worked in the country.(when代替in the days作状语)
  ②a:They came to the small village,which was hundreds of miles from the city.(which在从句中作主语)
  他们来到这个小村,小村与城市相距几百英里。
  b:They came to the small village,where not more than l00 villagers lived.(where代替in the village作状语)他们来到这个小村庄,那里的村民不超过一百人。
  2)the time,the way等为先行词时关系词的使用。
  (1)先行词为time/moment等表示时间的名词时,用关系词when,that均可,且可省略。
  例:By the time (when/that) they arrived,the house had been destroyed completely.等他们到达时,房子已完全烧毁了。


英语教案-unit1 Madame Curie教学目标由www.170yx.com收集及整理,转载请说明出处www.170yx.com
www.170yx.com   (2)the way用作先行词,关系代词作介词in的宾语时,通常介词与关系代词可以同时省略;如不使用in,则不能用关系代词。
  例:He hated the ways(which/that)she talked (in).他不喜欢她说话的方式。
  3)关系代词只使用that,不使用which的情况。
  (1) 关系代词前有形容词的最高级修饰时。
  This is the funniest drama that I have seen.这是我看过的最滑稽的剧。
  (2)先行词为不定代词。如:all,everything,nothing,anything,both.either,much,little,none。
  例:①Everything that was taught in class seemed easy for him. 对他来说课堂上教的一切似乎很容易。
  (3)先行词为only,very等词修饰肘。
  例:①It was the only textbook that could be found.这是能够找到的仅有的一本课本。
  ②This is the very dictionary that I want to get.这正是我想得到的词典。
  (4)定语从句中固定短语动词和短语中的介词不能前置。
  例:It was the maths book that the boy was in search of.这是这个男孩正在寻找的数学书。
  5)whose与of which/whom
  (1)都可表所有关系。
  (2)of which/whom还可表示其中的……(整体的部分)
  例:He told us many stories about Long March,of which this is a good example.他给我们讲了许多关于长征的故事,这是其中一个很好的例子。
  
as和which引导的非限制性定语从句比较:
  下面是近年高考题中关于定语从句的试题
1.The result of the experiment was very good, ____ we hadnt expected.     (NMET2000,10)
2.Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play,____,of course,made the others unhappy.
  (NMET2000,17)
  A.when B.which C.this D.what
3.Carol said the work would be done by October,____ personally I doubt   very much.(NMET99,19)
  A.it B.that C.then D.which
4.The weather turned out to be very good,____ was more than we could expect. (NMET94,39)
  A.what B.which C.that D.it
  它们的答案分别是C、B、D和B,都是用which引导一个非限制性定语从句,which代替逗号前整个主句的内容。
  但有时关系代词as也可引导非限制性定语从句,as也是代替整个主句的意思。如:
  As we all know,he never smokes. The foolish boy made the mistake again,as could be expected. ____ is mentioned above,the number of students in senior high school is increasing.(99上海,4)
  A.Which B.As C.That D.It
  关系代词as和which引导的非限制性定语从句区别究竟在哪里呢?
  1.非限制性定语从句位于句末,而且as或which在从句中作主语、宾语或表语时可互换。如:
  He is a farmer as/which is clear from his manners.(在从句中作主语)
  This elephant is like a snake,as/which anybody can see.(在从句中作宾语)
  2. which引导的非限制性定语从句一般放在句末,而as引导的非限制性定语从句可放在句末,也可放在句中、句首。置于句首时,不能用which替换。如:
  Crusoe lost his dog, which made him very sad.
  Taiwan is part of China, as/which is known to all.
  As we have seen, oceans cover more than 70 percent of the earth.
  3.as引导非限制性定语从句时,意为这一点、这件事,常与see,hope,expect,know,guess等动词搭配;而which引导非限制性定语从句时,与主句有一种因果关系,可译为所以……。如:
  Cyprus, as you all know, is in the Mediterranean.大家都知道,塞浦路斯在地中海。
  Bamboo is hollow,which makes it very light。竹子是空的,所以很轻。
  4.as引导非限制性定语从句,并在从句中作主语时,其后面的谓语动词必须是连系动词。如果从句谓语动词是行为动词,则必须用which。如:
  He married her,as was natural.
  She refused to take the medicine,which made her mother angry.
  It rained hard yesterday,which prevented her from going to Shenyang.
  但若从句谓语是usually, happen,be often the case等时,仍用关系代词as,不用which。如:
  He is absent,as is often the case.
几组正误辨析:
1.误:We visited a factory where makes toys for children.
  正:We visited a factory which that makes toys for children.
  析:此句错误的原因是把先行词a factory当作从句中的状 语,实际上先行词a    factory在从句中充当动词makes的主语。故关系词应使用which或that。
2.误:After living in Paris for 50years,he returned to the small town that   he grew up as a child。
  正:After living in Paris for 50years, he returned to the small town   where he grew up as a child。
  析:此句错误的原因是把先行词the small town当作从句中的宾语,实际上从句中缺少地点状语。因为从句中谓语动词grew up是一个不及物动词短语,其后的as a child已充当了宾语,故从句中缺少状语,应使用关系副词where。
3.误:He paid the boy $15 for washing ten windows,most of them hadnt been cleaned for at least a year.
  正:He paid the boy $15 for washing ten windows, most of which hadnt been cleaned for at least a year.
  误:This is the boy with him he worked.
  正:This is the boy(that/whom) he worked with。
  正:This is the boy with whom he worked.
  析:在定语从句中,如果介词及介词短语用在从句前,其后必须用关系代词which(指物)、whom(指人)。上面两误句中先行词windows(物),the boy(人)应分别使用most of which和with whom。如果介词及介词短语用在从句句尾,应按普通定语从句对待。





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