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Unit 24 The science of farmingle

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教学目标

知识目标

一、教学目标与要求

  通过本单元教学,继续学习、巩固有关直接引语和间接引语的内容。学生应能够熟练地把直接引语转换为间接引语。复习有关谈论天气的话题,能熟练的描述各种天气。通过对课文的学习,让学生了解我国历史上农业发展的情况,并能用英语进行简单描述。

二、教学重点与难点

1. 重点词汇

develop; experience; knock out of; point out; turn over; go against; agree to do; now and then

2. 重要句型

1) The soil should also be turned over with a fork so that the weeds would be destroyed. 2) The book, which has 110 000 characters, is about both farming and gardening.

3. 语法:(间接引语)

1) He said that the best seed-heads should be hung up to dry. 2)They asked him if it was a good idea to sow wheat close together. 3) They asked him when he harvested the wheat. 4) He advised/told farmers to do things at the right time of year.

4. 日常交际用语 谈论天气 (Talking about the weather) :

1) It's a beautiful day today. 2) It's going to be dry and sunny for the next two days. 3) What's the weather going to be like at the weekend? 4) They say it's going to be wet and windy.

能力知识

  1.掌握本课的重点词汇、词组和句型以及语法。

  2.运用所学语言,围绕农业这一题材,完成听、说、读、写四方面的训练。

德育、美育知识

  让学生通过本单元的学习,了解有关农业的一般知识,知道中国是最早研究农业科学的国家,对中国的农业有着巨大贡献,不愧是我国的农业先驱。同时,我们每一位公民都要养成热爱劳动、珍惜粮食的优秀品质。


教学建议

教学分析与建议

分析课文L94-95

  本单元话题主要是介绍我国农学先驱贾思勰和他的著作《齐民要术》,让学生了解我国农业发展的悠久历史,提高对农业在国民经济中重要地位的认识。分为三段:

Part 1 (Paragraphs 1-2) China was the earliest research center for agriculture.

    ( Paragraph 1 ) China was one of the first countries in the world to study the science of farming.

    (Paragraph 2) One of the pioneers of farming was Jia Sixie.

Part 2 (Paragraphs 3—4) Jia Sixie’s research on farming

    (Paragraph 3) Jia Sixie studied ways of keeping seeds.

    (Paragraph 4) Jia Sixie studied how to improve soil conditions.

Part 3 (Paragraphs 5-7) Something about the book QI Min Yao Shu.

    (Paragraph 5) Qi Min Yao Shu is about both farming and gardening.

    (Paragraph 6) The book was considered to be an important summary of the knowledge of farming.

    (Paragraph 7) Five pieces of advice from Qi Min Yao Shu.

2.Lesson 94 Reading的课堂结构及教法:

Step l:高中英语教学大纲指出"高一年级的学生能以每分绅40 - 50个词的速度阅读,并能基本把握中心思想和主要事实o"本课共300多个词,限学生在六分钟内读完。然后指导、培养学生善于发现文章或段落主题句和概括大意的技能。

  Part 1(1-2)Jia Sixie was one of the pioneers of farming in China,

  Part 1(2-3)Jia Sixie,s studies in farming

  Part 1(5-6)Jia Sixie,s famous book Qi MinYao Shu

Step 2 指导学生通读全文,细读。

  (1)就课文内容回答Yes--No Questions

  (2)利用课文,培养学生根据语境或构词知识推测词义和理解句意的能力

  ①Word study    farming-farm+ing

  government-govern+ment information-inform+tion

  ②explain the following sentences

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] 下一页  

  a. He pointed out that it was important to remove seeds,-He said it was important to get

  b. The seeds should be knocked out Of the seed-heads-The seeds should be separated from

Step 3根据课文内容,精心设计综合题,培养学生综合应用知识的能力(略)

Step 4布置练习:Summarize the text

知识点讲解

  语法----直接引语变成间接引语

  总结直接引语变成间接引语有四种情况:

  l.直接引语是陈述句,变成间接引语时,要把陈述句变成由that引导的宾语从句。例如:

  He said: “Die best seed-heads should be hung up to dry.”

  →He said that the best seed-heads should be hung up to dry.

  直接引语是陈述句,变成间接引语时要注意三点:

  l)时态的一致;

  2)对人称代词和物主代词的相应调整;

  3)某些时间和地点状语的相应调整。

  例如:

  Alice said, “I’ve just got a letter from my father.”

  →Alice said that she had just got a letter from her father.

  Mr Black said, “I arrived yesterday.”

  →Mr Black said that he had arrived the day before.

  2.直接引语是一般疑问句,变成间接引语时要把一般疑问句变成由if/ whether(是否)引导的宾语从句,同时将语序改成陈述句语序。例如:


Unit 24 The science of farmingle由www.170yx.com收集及整理,转载请说明出处www.170yx.com
www.170yx.com

  He asked her, “Do they agree to sow wheat close together?”

  →He asked her if they agreed to sow wheat close together.

  直接引语是一般疑问句,变成间接引语时,除了要用if/whether来引导宾语从句外,前述的三点注意事项同样适用于这种情况。例如:

  Alice asked Mike, “Have you finished doing your homework?”

  →Alice asked Mike if/whether he had finished doing his homework.

  Mrs Turner asked me, “Do you know where Tom works?”

  →Mrs Turner asked me if/whether I knew where Tom worked.

  3.直接引语是特殊疑问句,变成间接引语时要把特殊疑问句变成由疑问词(when,where,how等)引导的宾语从句,还要把疑问句的语序改成陈述句的语序。此外,前述的三点注意事项同样适用于这种情况。例如:

  Tire students asked the farmer, “When do you harvest the wheat?”

  →The students asked the farmer when he harvested the wheat.

  →“What are you doing here, Mary?” John asked.

  →John asked Mary what she was doing there.

  →“When will she leave for Beijing?” Mr Smith asked me.

  →Mr Smith asked me when she would leave for Beijing.

  4.直接引语是祈使句,变成间接引语时,要把祈使句变成一个不定式短语,同时根据口气选用适当的谓语动词,如ask(请),tell(让),order(命令)等。例如:

  He said to the farmers, “Do things at the right fame of year.”

  →He told the farmers to do things at the right time of the year.

  “Open your books. Please,” he said.

  →He asked us to open our books,

  “Don't turn off the light,” the teacher said.

  →The teacher told me not to turn off the light.

辨析condition, situation

  两个词都有“情况,形势”的意思。

  condition表示“情况,环境”时多用复数。当我们表示具体的工作、生活、居住“环境”“条件”时,用condition。

  situation表“形势”时为正式用语。

  Their wages and working conditions must be improved. 他们的工资、工作条件必须改进。

  What are conditions like in your country? 你们国家的情形如何?

  How do you analyze the present economic situation? 你怎样分析当前的经济形势?

辨析advise, suggest

  相同点:两个动词都有“建议”之意,并且二者都可接+that –clause

  We wish to advise you that you now owe the bank $500.你现欠银行五百美元,特此通知。

  I suggested that it would be quicker to travel by train. 我建议说坐火车旅行要快一些。

  不同点:

  1)  advise sb. to do sth.

  2)  suggest doing sth.

  He advised farmers to choose the best-heads. 他劝告农民要挑选最好的谷穗。

  He suggested changing the plan.他建议改变这个计划。

辨析point out, point in, point to

  point out指出,常用于借喻中,后接名词和that从句。

  point in表示具体的“指”。英语可以说point a finger (gun) at ab. (用手指(枪)指某人)。但更常见的是其不及物动词的用法。例如:

  point to指着;指向,有时与point at同义,但一般用于较远的事物。此外,point to还有“指向”,“显示”等意义。例如:

  He pointed out the mistakes in my composition. 他指出了我作文中的错误。

  “That’s the man who did it,” she said, pointing at me. “那就是干那件事的人,”她手指着我说。

  She pointed to the house on the corner and said, “That’s where I lived.”她指着拐角处的房子说,那就是我住的地方。

辨析it, one, ones, that, those

  这几个替代词都可以用来替代句中或上文中已提到的名词,以避免重复。

  1)it用于指代前面所提到过的名词,即同类同物。它可代替单数名词或不可数名词。

  2)one常用来代替上文中出现过的可数名词,或以可数名词为中心的整个名词词组,指同类异物。其复数形式为ones。one和ones即可指人,也可指物。one代替单数可数名词,ones代替复数可数名词。

  that用来代替上文中出现的名词,它表示与前面同类的东西,既可代替可数名词,也可代不可数名词,常要求有后置定语,一般不指人。

  those用来代替可数名词复数,表示特指。有时the ones和 those可互换,要求有后置定语。

  I don't want to drink the tea. It is too hot. 我不想喝茶,太烫了。

  She looked for her watch everywhere, but she couldn't find it anywhere. 她四处找她的手表,结果哪儿也没找到。

  He needs a new dictionary. He is going to buy one.他需要新字典,打算去买一本。

  The new designs are much better than the old one. 这些新的设计比旧的(设计)好多了。

  The weather here is colder than that in Hainan.这里的天气要比海南的天气冷一些。

  The book is more difficult than those we have read before.这本书比我们以前读过的书要难些。

辨析earth;soil;ground;land

  earth意为:“地”,“地球”,“泥土”。它着重指“大地”以别于天空,但它也往往指地面,以别于海洋,大气和天空。作“泥土”理解时,它常用以别于坚硬的岩石。


Unit 24 The science of farmingle由www.170yx.com收集及整理,转载请说明出处www.170yx.com
www.170yx.com

  soil意为:“土地”“土壤”,尤指生长植物的土地。

  ground意为:“地、地面”,主要指大地表面,不论是泥地,沙地或水泥地,均可用这个词表示;也可用指土壤,场地。

  land意为:“陆地,土地”。与海洋和河流相对,也可指“田地”,可耕种的田地就叫做 land,它可以指“国士”、“国家”。

  Snakes creep on the earth 蛇在地上爬行。

  I’ll fill in the hole with earth.我将用泥土把洞填起来。

  The soil is very thin in the forest.森林里的土层非常薄。

  He studied how to improve soil conditions.他研究怎样改善土壤条件。

  The ground is covered with leaves in the woods.地上落满了树叶。

  We travelled by land until we reached the sea.我们从陆地去,一直旅行到大海。

  Then we'd better pick the rest of these cabbages before the weather changes.那咱们最好在变天前把这些剩下的卷心菜收回去。

  1)注意before引导的时间状语从句中用现在时态替将来时。

  2)有些 before引导的从句译成“在……之前”意思很别扭,不合乎汉语的表达习惯、这时,应根据不同的语境灵活地译成其他各种含义,句意才能自然通顺。    其译法主要有下列几种:

  a.译成“……之后才”。例如:

  The fire lasted about four hours before the fire-fighters could control it.大火持续了大约四个小时后,消防人员才将它控制住。

  b.译成“就”,“便’等。这时主句谓语动词是否定形式。例如:

  I didn't sleep long before day broke.我没睡多长时间就亮了。

  c.译成“不等……就……”、例如:

  He laughed before I could finish the humorous story.不等我讲完那幽默故事他就笑起来了。

  Before I could get in a word, he had measured me. 不等我插话,他已经给我量好了尺寸。

  d.译成“先……再”。例如:

  Be a pupil before you become a teacher.先做学生,后做先生。

  e.其他译法。例如:

  Then we can leave early in the morning before it gets too hot. 这样我们可以一清早就动身,以免天气太热。

  Write it down before you forget it.趁你还没忘记,把它写下来。

  China was one of the first countries in the world to study the science of farming.中国是世界上最最研究农学的国家之一。

  l)on of the first…to do…作“最早做……的之一”解,first后面跟不定式,作定语。如:

  They are first to bear hardships,the last enjoy comforts.他们总是吃苦在前,享乐在后。

  2)作后置定语的不定式(短语)“to study the science of farming”与其所修饰的先行调(同组)“(one of)the first countries”发生了脱离的情况。这种“脱离”或称“分裂”有时是必要的,是不可不用的。归纳起来,有下列三种:

  a.当中心名词另有形容词、介词短语或定语从句作其后置定语时,后置不定式从句作其后置定语时,后置不定式定语应往后移置。故本句应将“in the world”置于“to study…”之前。而不能相反。另如:

  You will remember the vain efforts of my little brother to climb to the top of that big tree.

  b.当中心词用作句中动词的宾语,而该动词作某些不可后移的状语修饰时,该定语的后置不定式定语也正好移至状语之后。如:

  He orders this morning to put out of the city at once.

  试比较:This morning he received orders to put out of the city at once. 但不可说成:

  He received orders to put out of the city at once this morning.

  c.中心词如是句中主语,而句中谓语又比较短小,不定式比较长时,常将这种不定式移置谓语之后。如:

  A lot of ways have been found to protect the country against attack.

  At the meeting a decision was made to transfer a part of the student to another school.

  Here are five pieces of advice collected from Jia Sixie’s book Oi Min Yao Shu. 这里从贾思勰的《齐民要术》中摘录的五条意见。

  (1)此句是倒装句,here是表示地点的副词,一般不放在句首,但有时为了加强语气或引起对方的注意,可将here置于句首变成全部倒装语序,这时要注意谓语动词的位置,即主语是名词,谓语放在主语之前,主语是代词,谓语仍然放在主语之后。例如:

  Here comes the bus. 班车来了。

  Here he comes. 他来了。

  (2)here用于倒装句,谓语的单复数与后面的主语保持一致

上一页  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] 下一页  

  I suggested that it would be quicker to travel by train. 我建议说坐火车旅行要快一些。

  不同点:

  1)  advise sb. to do sth.

  2)  suggest doing sth.

  He advised farmers to choose the best-heads. 他劝告农民要挑选最好的谷穗。

  He suggested changing the plan.他建议改变这个计划。

辨析point out, point in, point to

  point out指出,常用于借喻中,后接名词和that从句。

  point in表示具体的“指”。英语可以说point a finger (gun) at ab. (用手指(枪)指某人)。但更常见的是其不及物动词的用法。例如:

  point to指着;指向,有时与point at同义,但一般用于较远的事物。此外,point to还有“指向”,“显示”等意义。例如:


Unit 24 The science of farmingle由www.170yx.com收集及整理,转载请说明出处www.170yx.com
www.170yx.com

  He pointed out the mistakes in my composition. 他指出了我作文中的错误。

  “That’s the man who did it,” she said, pointing at me. “那就是干那件事的人,”她手指着我说。

  She pointed to the house on the corner and said, “That’s where I lived.”她指着拐角处的房子说,那就是我住的地方。

辨析it, one, ones, that, those

  这几个替代词都可以用来替代句中或上文中已提到的名词,以避免重复。

  1)it用于指代前面所提到过的名词,即同类同物。它可代替单数名词或不可数名词。

  2)one常用来代替上文中出现过的可数名词,或以可数名词为中心的整个名词词组,指同类异物。其复数形式为ones。one和ones即可指人,也可指物。one代替单数可数名词,ones代替复数可数名词。

  that用来代替上文中出现的名词,它表示与前面同类的东西,既可代替可数名词,也可代不可数名词,常要求有后置定语,一般不指人。

  those用来代替可数名词复数,表示特指。有时the ones和 those可互换,要求有后置定语。

  I don't want to drink the tea. It is too hot. 我不想喝茶,太烫了。

  She looked for her watch everywhere, but she couldn't find it anywhere. 她四处找她的手表,结果哪儿也没找到。

  He needs a new dictionary. He is going to buy one.他需要新字典,打算去买一本。

  The new designs are much better than the old one. 这些新的设计比旧的(设计)好多了。

  The weather here is colder than that in Hainan.这里的天气要比海南的天气冷一些。

  The book is more difficult than those we have read before.这本书比我们以前读过的书要难些。

辨析earth;soil;ground;land

  earth意为:“地”,“地球”,“泥土”。它着重指“大地”以别于天空,但它也往往指地面,以别于海洋,大气和天空。作“泥土”理解时,它常用以别于坚硬的岩石。

  soil意为:“土地”“土壤”,尤指生长植物的土地。

  ground意为:“地、地面”,主要指大地表面,不论是泥地,沙地或水泥地,均可用这个词表示;也可用指土壤,场地。

  land意为:“陆地,土地”。与海洋和河流相对,也可指“田地”,可耕种的田地就叫做 land,它可以指“国士”、“国家”。

  Snakes creep on the earth 蛇在地上爬行。

  I’ll fill in the hole with earth.我将用泥土把洞填起来。

  The soil is very thin in the forest.森林里的土层非常薄。

  He studied how to improve soil conditions.他研究怎样改善土壤条件。

  The ground is covered with leaves in the woods.地上落满了树叶。

  We travelled by land until we reached the sea.我们从陆地去,一直旅行到大海。

  Then we'd better pick the rest of these cabbages before the weather changes.那咱们最好在变天前把这些剩下的卷心菜收回去。

  1)注意before引导的时间状语从句中用现在时态替将来时。

  2)有些 before引导的从句译成“在……之前”意思很别扭,不合乎汉语的表达习惯、这时,应根据不同的语境灵活地译成其他各种含义,句意才能自然通顺。    其译法主要有下列几种:

  a.译成“……之后才”。例如:

  The fire lasted about four hours before the fire-fighters could control it.大火持续了大约四个小时后,消防人员才将它控制住。

  b.译成“就”,“便’等。这时主句谓语动词是否定形式。例如:

  I didn't sleep long before day broke.我没睡多长时间就亮了。

上一页  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] 下一页  

  c.译成“不等……就……”、例如:

  He laughed before I could finish the humorous story.不等我讲完那幽默故事他就笑起来了。

  Before I could get in a word, he had measured me. 不等我插话,他已经给我量好了尺寸。

  d.译成“先……再”。例如:

  Be a pupil before you become a teacher.先做学生,后做先生。

  e.其他译法。例如:

  Then we can leave early in the morning before it gets too hot. 这样我们可以一清早就动身,以免天气太热。

  Write it down before you forget it.趁你还没忘记,把它写下来。

  China was one of the first countries in the world to study the science of farming.中国是世界上最最研究农学的国家之一。

  l)on of the first…to do…作“最早做……的之一”解,first后面跟不定式,作定语。如:

  They are first to bear hardships,the last enjoy comforts.他们总是吃苦在前,享乐在后。

  2)作后置定语的不定式(短语)“to study the science of farming”与其所修饰的先行调(同组)“(one of)the first countries”发生了脱离的情况。这种“脱离”或称“分裂”有时是必要的,是不可不用的。归纳起来,有下列三种:

  a.当中心名词另有形容词、介词短语或定语从句作其后置定语时,后置不定式从句作其后置定语时,后置不定式定语应往后移置。故本句应将“in the world”置于“to study…”之前。而不能相反。另如:

  You will remember the vain efforts of my little brother to climb to the top of that big tree.

  b.当中心词用作句中动词的宾语,而该动词作某些不可后移的状语修饰时,该定语的后置不定式定语也正好移至状语之后。如:


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  He orders this morning to put out of the city at once.

  试比较:This morning he received orders to put out of the city at once. 但不可说成:

  He received orders to put out of the city at once this morning.

  c.中心词如是句中主语,而句中谓语又比较短小,不定式比较长时,常将这种不定式移置谓语之后。如:

  A lot of ways have been found to protect the country against attack.

  At the meeting a decision was made to transfer a part of the student to another school.

  Here are five pieces of advice collected from Jia Sixie’s book Oi Min Yao Shu. 这里从贾思勰的《齐民要术》中摘录的五条意见。

  (1)此句是倒装句,here是表示地点的副词,一般不放在句首,但有时为了加强语气或引起对方的注意,可将here置于句首变成全部倒装语序,这时要注意谓语动词的位置,即主语是名词,谓语放在主语之前,主语是代词,谓语仍然放在主语之后。例如:

  Here comes the bus. 班车来了。

  Here he comes. 他来了。

  (2)here用于倒装句,谓语的单复数与后面的主语保持一致。

Lesson 93 教学设计方案

Teaching Aims

  1. Study this lesson to know how to talk about the weather and know more about farming.

  2. Get the students to practise the dialogue in pair’s.

  3.. Ask some students to act it out.

Teaching Procedures

Step 1. Lead in

Ask the students questions like these:

  What’s the weather like today?

  Do you know what is the weather going to be like for the next two days?

  Did you listen to the weather report on the radio?

Step 2. Listening

  Play the tape for the students to listen and find out according to the dialogue:

  What’s the weather like today?

  What’s the weather going to be like for the next two days?

  What’s the weather going to be like at the weekend?

Step 3 .Reading

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  Read the dialogue silently and find out:

  What will Tim do tomorrow?

  What had they better do before the weather changes?

Step 4 .Dialogue

  1. Play the tape of the dialogue for the students to listen and follow.

  2. Go through the dialogue briefly. Deal with the language points.

  1) be busy with, l)be busy doing

  2) What's...like...? 怎么样?指人时问的是“外貌,性格”

   How is...? 怎么样?指人时问的是“身体状况”

   What is the weather like? = How is the weather?

  But: What is the new teacher like?

  Possible answers: He is very tall. Or: he is very kind.

  How is the teacher now?

   Possible answers: He is getting better today. Or: He is quite all right.

  3) be made of, be made from

  3. Let the students practise in pairs.

  4. Ask one pair to act it out in front of the class.

Step 5. Practice

  1. Ask the students to make sentences from the two tables.

  2. Deal with the new words.

Step 6. Listening

  1. Listening Cassette Unit 24. Play the tape once or twice as necessary.

  2. Discuss the answers with the whole class.

  3. Do Ex.2,3 on page 130.

Step 7. Consolidation

  1. Do some exercises on page 94, Ex. 1,2,3.

  2. Ask the students to make up a similar dialogue.

Step 8 Homework

  Prepare a story with the words in the box on page 94.

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