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高一英语Food for thought教案1

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Chapter6 Food for Thought-grammar
一、章节分析
(一)综述
1 本章节出现need和have to 两个情态动词的用法,表示必须做某些事。尤其是need, 它具有双重性,即既可以是情态动词也可以是实意动词。在宾语从句的教学中一定要让学生了解从句的概念,宾语从句的句式特点,以及它的句型转换。作为语法,教师应从大量的情景和机械的操练中让学生熟练掌握。
2 情态动词本身虽有词义,但并不表示动作或状态,而只表示说话人认为某件事“能不能做”、“可不可做”或“该不该做”等的看法。情态动词不能单独构成谓语,须与实意动词或连系动词的原形一起构成谓语。
3 从课本中的have to 和need 的句式操练中情态动词的基本构成。结合课本中对健康问题的情景讨论中加深它们的用法。然后以点带面总结情态动词的基本用法,尤其是have to 和must, need 和dare 双重性用法的对比。简单地介绍情态动词的其它基本用法。使学生对高中阶段的情态动词的学习有所了解。
4 宾语从句在句中做及物动词或介词的宾语.当宾语从句是一个事实时,用that 引导,在口语中和非正式文体中that 常常省略.当宾语从句是一个问句是,根据内容的不同,可用whether, if, who, what, which, when, where, how, why等来引导.
5   本章节可以用pair work 形式以及段落总结的形式来进行。
(二)目标
1 运用情态动词have to 和need 来表述必须和需要,以及它们的否定句和疑问句。尤其注意need的实意动词与情态动词用法的对比。如Need he hurry? No, he needn’t. (情态动词)/ Do I need to hurry? No, you don’t need to hurry. (实意动词)
2 在宾语从句中用know, think,  believe, 等词来表达观点,以及它们的疑问句和否定句。这些动词后带有特殊疑问词引导的宾语从句,如where, why, 等等。
3 操练有关对健康问题的各种提问及其回答。
(三)教学法
情景创设法(教师通过创设不同的情境,反复操练语法句型,使学生达到熟练运用的要求)。
(四)重点和难点
1 情态动词
1)need 既可以是情态动词也可以是实意动词
2)have to 和must, need 和dare 用法的对比。
3)情态动词表示推测的用法。
2 宾语从句
1)宾语从句中think , believe, suppose 等词的否定转移,以及否定回答。
2)宾语从句的语序,尤其遇到what is the matter, what is wrong with you 等句式的宾语从句。
3 课本练习的活动设计
本章节教师可以通过两人配对形式或教师和学生互动形式完成课后练习。

二、教学设计(Teaching Designs)
教学内容 教学实施建议 教学资源参考
1 Lead in 教师可以通过自己最近身体不适的情境入手,请学生提出建议,并表达对学生建议的看法。在充分调动学生积极性后,分别引入情态动词和宾语从句的语法内容。自然的引入拉近师生的距离,生动的情景对话使学生对枯燥的语法内容感到兴趣,增强他们的学习热情,激发他们的求知欲。
具体处理这部分内容的建议以及相关的背景见[链接1]。

 
2 practice 这是本课的主体部分,通过丰富多彩的练习形式体现该语法的语用功能
包括1.设计具体的语境帮助学生理解情态动词的语法规则,以及表示看法的宾语从句。
2.提供具体的例句和示范。
3.通过对课本部分练习的操练培养学生对该语法的理解
4. 只有达到熟练操练即可,无须全部完成课本练习。
[链接2]可以是相关的练习。(choice, fill in the blanks etc ) 《英语语法实践指南》第三版
第五章
第十一章
3 production 这是情态动词的语法拓展部分,教师可以通过对饮食对健康的影响的语段,组织课堂活动,以小组讨论形式,用对话和陈述两项活动让学生在交际中学会语言的运用。
[链接3]中提供了一个处理该部分内容的教案或课件。 


[链接1]
说明:
本课时主要是对情态动词和宾语从句的语法操练。可以通过日常生活的对话灵活引入这两个概念。并把这两个语法点有机地结合起来,运用于语言的交际中,使枯燥的语法生动化。我们有必要创设生活情景,让学生在情景中进行更深层次的操练。如下提供具体处理这部分内容的建议以及相关的背景。

Warming-up
T: Hello, everybody, how are you these days?
S: I am well.( fine, nice, OK…) / I am not fine. (I feel sick.) And how are you?
T: I am extremely exhausted, because I have been busy writing an article until midnight these days.
  By the way, can you tell me some advice on how to refresh?
S: You should stop to refresh first./ You can ask your friends for help./You have to have a rest.
T: Can you tell me your advice again in a more polite way by using such verbs as think, believe, suppose?
S: I think you should stop to refresh first.
T: Thanks, I think so.
T: Good, ok, today we will learn the way to express your ideas by using the words have to / need to do and object clauses, the object clauses with that and wh-.
Pair work
1.Two students as a pair, one will speak out his/her troubles, the other will offer his/ her the advice by using have to / need.
E.g. S1 My skin is dry and rough.
S2 Then you have to/ need to take more Vitamin C.
2. Four students as a group, one will speak out his/her problems, the other three will give his/her advice by using have/ need. ( more suggestions), and the first one will choose which is the best by using the object clause with think, believe…


高一英语Food for thought教案1由www.170yx.com收集及整理,转载请说明出处www.170yx.com
www.170yx.com More suggestions.  S3 Then you have to/ need to see a doctor.
S4 Then you have to/ need to avoid going out very often.
S1 I think I have to avoid going out very often.

Problems for reference
a. I have got a lot of homework to do today.
b. My hair is turning white.
c. I am growing fat these days.
 [链接2]
说明:
本部分内容在处理的时候,要注意对比和操练的方法。情态动词need的双重性,引入其它情态动词的基本用法,使学生对高中阶段的情态动词有基本的了解。并通过大量的操练来巩固和加深。宾语从句的操练也是如此,还可以用句型转换的形式让学生在对比中加深印象。尤其注意从句的陈述句语序。教材中的宾语从句练习比较枯燥,可以选做。补充练习可以弥补牛津教材练习量不足的弱点,将教材为我所用,加以改造,在课堂教学中及时有效地检测学生的语言运用能力。
情态动词概说
助动词(auxiliary)主要有两类:基本助动词(primary auxiliary)和情态助动词(modal auxiliary)。基本助动词有三个:do, have和be;情态助动词有十三个:may, might; can, could; will, would; shall, should; must, need, dare, used to, ought to. 上述两类助动词的共同特征是,在协助主动词构成限定动词词组时,具有作用词的功能。基本助动词与情态助动词最主要的区别之一是,基本助动词本身没有词义,而情态助动词则有自己的词义,能表示说话人对有关动作或状态的看法,或表示主观设想:

Need 和 dare的用法
1. need表示“需要”或“必须”,作情态动词时,仅用于否定句或疑问句中,在肯定句中一般用must, have to, ought to,或should代替。如:
You needn’t come so early.
— Need I finish the work today?
— Yes, you must.
注意:needn't + 不定式的完成式“表示本来不必做某事而实际上做了某事”。如:
You needn't have waited for me.
2. Dare作情态动词时,主要用于疑问句、否定句和条件从句中,一般不用在肯定句中。如:
How dare you say I'm unfair.
He daren't speak English before such a crowd, dare he?
3. Dare和need常用作实义动词,有时态、人称和数的变化,所不同的是,作实义动词时,在肯定句中,dare后面通常接带to的不定式,在否定和疑问句中,dare后面可接带to或不带to的不定式。如:
I dare to swim across this river.
He does not dare (to) answer.
Don't you dare (to) touch it!
I wondered he dare (to) say that.
He needs to finish it this evening.
Have to和must的用法
1. 表示必须、必要。如:
You must come in time.
回答must引出的问句时,如果是否定的回答,不能用mustn't,而要用needn't或don't have to。
— Must we hand in our exercise books today?
— Yes, you must. (No, you don’t have to.)
2. “must be + 表语”的结构表示推测,它的否定或疑问式用can代替must。
   This must be your pen.
3. “must + have + 过去分词”的结构常用在肯定句中,表示对过去发生的行为的推测。它的否定或疑问式用can代替must。
He must have been to Shanghai.
4. have to的含义与must相似,两者往往可以互换使用,但have to有各种形式,随have的变化而定。must与have to有下列几点不同:
① must表示的是说话人的主观看法,而have to则往往强调客观需要。如:
The play is not interesting. I really must go now.
I had to work when I was your age.
② must一般只表现在,have则有更多的时态形式。
③ 二者的否定意义不大相同。如:
You mustn't go. 你可不要去。
You don't have to go. 你不必去。
④ 询问对方的意愿时应用must。如:
Must I clean all the room?
(二)语法练习
I. Choices
1. You _______ angry with her, for she is very young.
A. need not to be    B. don’t need to
C. need not be     D. need not
2. You look pale.  You _______ ill.
A. can be   B. must be  C. should be  D. has to be
3. You _________ read that book if you don’t want to.
A haven’t   B. can’t  C. mustn’t  D. needn’t
4. I want to go to the doctor, but you ________with me.
A. need not to go    B. do not need go
C. need not go     D. need go not
5. You ________ yourself about money.
A. need not worry    B. have worry
C. are not being worried   D. need not be worried
6. There was plenty of time.  She ___________.
A. mustn’t have hurried   B. couldn’t have hurried
C. mustn’t hurry    D. needn’t have hurried
7. To learn to swim well, _________.
A. much practice is needed by one  B . one is needed much practice
C. much practice is needed   D. one needs much practice
8. “You realize that you were driving at 100 mph, don’t you?”
  “No, officer, I _________.  This car can’t do more than 80.”
A. didn’t’ need to be   B. may not have been
C. couldn’t have been   D. needn’t have been
9. He asked us ___________.
A. what the matter was    B. what was the matter


高一英语Food for thought教案1由www.170yx.com收集及整理,转载请说明出处www.170yx.com
www.170yx.com C. what wrong was     D. what was the wrong
10. Please tell me where _________ from.
A. do you come   B. did you come
C. are you coming   D. you are coming
Key to Choices
1. C   2. B   3. D   4. C   5. A   6. D   7. D   8. C   9. B   10. D

宾语从句概说
宾语从句是在动词和介词后由连词that 或wh- 等词引导以陈述句语序出现的句子。它通常用来表达观点和提出问题等。是语言表达的重要方式之一。通过练习指导学生掌握引导宾语从句的各种连词,以及宾语从句的语序,(主句+连接词+主语+谓语),掌握宾语从句与主句在时态上的呼应。以及与其它句式和从句的辨析。
注意:1. 连词that,只起连接作用,在从句中不作句子成分,也无词汇意义,在口语中常被省略。
      2.连词if 、whether,它们起连接作用,在从句中不作句子成分,作“是否”解,在口语中多用if。
3.连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which,连接副词when, where, why, how, 它们起连接作用,作句子成分,各有自己的意义。

一、用合适的连接词填空
1. Sam told me _____ he didn't go cycling yesterday afternoon.
2. Can you tell me ______ else is going to be on duty after class today?
3. Mary said _____ it wouldn't matter much.
4. He always thinks ______ he can do better for his motherland.
5. I really don't know ________ the bridge being built now will be finished.
6. They don't know _______ we are going hiking.
7. She wanted to know _______ her coat would be ready the next day.
8. I was really surprised at ______ I saw last Sunday.
9. I don't know ______ so many people are crowding round him.
10. Do you know ______ shirt it is on the shelf?
Key
1. why  2. who  3. that  4. how   5. how soon   6. when/why 7. when 8. what 9. why 10. whose
二、句型转换
1. When does the plane arrive? Please tell me.(改为宾语从句) →
Please tell me ________ _________ ________ _________.
2. What does Tim do? Do you know? (改为宾语从句)→
Do you know _______ Tim _______?
3. Do they want fried chicken? He asked the boys. (改为宾语从句) →
He asked the boys _______ they ______ fried chicken.
4. Was the watch made in Switzerland? I don't know. (改为宾语从句)→
I don't know _______ the watch _______ made in Switerland.
5. “Do you want to try something interesting?” Tom's mother asked him. (同义句)→
Tom's mother asked him _______ _______ _______ to try something interesting.
6. I think this is an exciting idea.(改为否定句) →
I _______ ________ this ________ an exciting idea.
7. Lucy hasn't decided which trousers to buy.(改为复合句) →
Lucy hasn't decided ________ _________ ________ _______ buy.
8. I don't know how I can get to the nearby hospital.(改为简单句) →
I don't know ________ ________ ________ to the nearby hospital.
Key
1. when the plane arrives
2. what…does
3. if…wanted
4. if…was
5. if he wanted
6. don’t think …is
7.which trousers she will
8. how to get

三、选择题
1. I don't know _____ he will be back home this evening.
A. who  B. what  C. when  D. where
2. Could you tell me ___________?
 A. where do you live     B. who you are waiting for
C. who were you waiting for   D. where you live in
3. Do you still remember _______?
A. that he said  B. what he said  C. did he say that  D. what did he say
4. I can't understand ______the little boy alone.
A. why she left  B. why did she leave  C. why she had left  D. why had she left
5. She told me the sun always ______ in the east.
 A. rise  B. rose  C. rises  D. had risen
6. They tried to find out ______ the new train ________.
 A. how far/ had gone  B. how long/ has gone
C. how far/ went    D. how far had/ run
7. The manager came up to see __________.
 A. what was the matter  B. what the matter was
C. what the matter is    D. what's the matter
8. Can you tell me ___________?
A. where are you doing   B. where do you study
C. where you were doing  D. where you study
9. He asked his father _______.
A. where it happens   B. where did it happen
C. how it happened    D. how did it happen
10. Would you like to know _______they will do it or not.
A. if    B. that  C. whether   D. why
11. ─Where do you think _____ he ____ the TV set? ─ Sorry, I've no idea.
A./, bought   B. has, bought   C. did, buy   D. did bought
12. Our homework has changed a lot. Who can tell _____ it would be like in _____ five years.
 A. how, another   B. what, more   C. how , other   D. what, another


高一英语Food for thought教案1由www.170yx.com收集及整理,转载请说明出处www.170yx.com
www.170yx.com 13. ─ Could you tell me ______? ─ Yes. He ____ to the USA.
A. where is he/ has been    B. where he is/ has gone
 C. where was he/ has been   D. where he was/ has gone
14. ─Mike wants to know if ____ a picnic tomorrow.
─Yes. But if it _______, we'll visit the museum instead.
A. you have/ will rain      B. you will have/ will rain
C. you will have/ rains     D. will you have/ rains
15. I really don't know if she _______ it when she ________.
  A. finds/ arrives   B. finds/ will arrive   C. will find/ will arrive   D. will find/ arrives
Key
1---5 C B B A C             6-10 A A D C C            11-15 A D B C D

[链接3]
说明:
本部分内容在处理的时候,要注意这是情态动词的语法拓展部分,教师可以通过对饮食对健康的影响的语段,组织课堂活动,以小组讨论形式,用对话和陈述两项活动让学生在交际中学会语言的运用。同时,也要在More Oral Practice强调综合运用的基础上,提升学生综合运用语言功能的能力,并学会知识的迁移。

1. Exercise
Cloze Test
    At different times in a man’s life his food has ____1____ effects on his body. Among__2__ food is quickly changed to the power to run and play games. Most of young adult’s food is spent on growing _____3___ ; we grow upwards only ___4_____ the first twenty years of our ___5_____ , not latter. Working men get their strong bodies from their food; and if they work hard, they do not get fat. Office ____6_____ , who eat well and __7_______ down a lot, may begin to grow fat when still quite young. Many older people fight against fatness. Perhaps the most difficult time is when a man ____8_______ sixty years of age. His body and ____9____ become restful. That is when food changes quickly to ______10______.

1. A. great  B. little C. different D. same
2. A. children B. babies C. adults D. old men
3. A. tall B. strong  C. clever  D. brave
4. A. since B. till C. to D. during
5. A. work B. works C. life D. lives
6.A. managers B. workers C. doctors D. assistant
7. A. seat B. seated C. sit D. sitting
8. A. grows B. reaches C. comes D. arrives
9. A. head B. mind C. heart D. business
10. A. fat  B. water C. rice D. dinner

Key
1—5 C A A D D
6-10 B C B B A  
2. Teacher can organize the activity according to the above passage to discuss how food can affect the growth of a person in our whole life.
Reference patterns
     I wonder…
     I can remember…
     Can we discuss …
     We need to do…
     The old have to do…


高一英语Food for thought教案1由www.170yx.com收集及整理,转载请说明出处www.170yx.com
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