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八年级英语Chapter 4语法重难点讲解1

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           Chapter Four
【本讲教育信息】
一. 教学内容:
Chapter Four: language and speaking

二. 重点、难点
 1. 祈使句(Imperative Sentence)
  定义:祈使句是用来表达命令、请求、劝告、警告、禁止的句子。祈使句最常用于表达请求、命令。
  (1)祈使句因对象(即主语)是第二人称,所以通常都省略。祈使句的动词都为动词原形,句末则使用句号来表示结束。如:
  Go and wash your hands. 去洗你的手。(表命令)
  Be quiet, please. (Please be quiet.) 请安静。(表请求)
  (2)肯定结构:
  ①Do型(即:动词原形+宾语+其他成分)。如:
  Please have a seat here. 请这边坐。
  有的祈使句在意思明确的情况下,动词可以省略。如:
  This way, please. = Go this way, please. 请这边走。
  ②Be型 (即:Be+表语+其他成分)。如:
  Be a good boy! 要做一个好孩子!
  ③Let型(即:Let+宾语+动词原形+其他成分)。如:
  Let me help you. 让我来帮你。
  (3)否定结构:
① Do 型和Be型的否定式都在句首加don‘t构成。如:
Don‘t forget me! 不要忘记我!
Don‘t be late for school! 上学不要迟到!
② Let型的否定式有两种:
“Don‘t+let+宾语+动词原形+其他成分“和“Let+宾语+not+动词原形+其他成分“如:
Don‘t let him go. / Let him not go.别让他走。
  ③有些祈使句可用no开头,用来表示禁止。如:
  No smoking! 禁止吸烟!
  No fishing! 禁止钓鱼!
  (4)“Let“开头的祈使句
  由“Let“开头的祈使句是个常见的动词句型,它的主要用法有下列三种:
  ①表示“建议“。
  在此句型里,let后面要跟第一人称的代词宾格形式。如:
  Let me try.
  该句型语气委婉,比Don‘t开头的祈使句客气。试比较:
  Don‘t disturb him. Let‘s not disturb him.
  ②表示“间接命令“或“愿望“。
  在此句型中,let后面要跟第三人称代词宾格形式或名词。如:
  Just let her try! 就让她试试吧!
  Let each man decide for himself. 让每个人自己决定吧!
  (5)使用“let“的祈使句时,必须注意以下几点:
  ①“let“的否定式有两种形式:“Don‘t let ...“和 “Let ... not“。
如果宾语是第三人称用“Don‘t let ...“;如果宾语是第一人称,则用“Let...not“。 如:
Don‘t let this type of things happen again.
It‘s raining now. Let‘s not go out until after the rain.
  ②“Let“适用于现在时态,可以有被动语态。如:
Let the recalcitrant criminals be sent to prison.
Let all the dedicated capable staff be promoted.
  ③“Let“后面跟不带“to“的不定式,还可以是某些副词:out,in,down,alone等。 如:
Let the puppy out.
Open the windows and let the fresh air in.
The room is too sunny. Let the blinds down.
Let me alone, please.
  ④用“Let‘s“时把谈话者的对象包括在内;用“let us“时,并不包括对方。如:
  Let‘s try it, shall we?
  Let us do it by ourselves, will you?
 2. David, pay attention. 大卫,请注意。
  pay attention to 注意......
  pay attention to your pronunciation. 请注意你的发音。

  数词概述:
  数词是表示数目多少或顺序先后的词。
  数词的种类: 基数词和序数词。
 1. 基数词的构成
  1-12 单独记: one, two, three , four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve
  13-19词尾为-teen. e.g: thirteen, fourteen, fifteen
  20, 30, 40逢十词尾为ty, twenty, thirty, forty
  21-99在十位数和个位数之间加连字符构成。Eg: 73 seventy-three , 88 eighty-eight
  101-999光说几百,再加and,再加末尾两位数。
  Eg: 178 one hundred and seventy-eight
   238 two hundred and thirty-eight
  1000 以上的数词,先从后向前数, 每三位用一逗号隔开
  第一个逗号表示thousand(千), 第二逗号表示million(百万), 第三个逗号表示billion(十亿),然后一节一节用几百几十几的方法。
  Eg: 1004 one thousand and four
   147258 one hundred and forty-seven thousand , two hundred and fifty-eight
   18657421 eighteen million, six hundred and fifty-seven thousand , four hundred and twenty-one
  注意:在这类数词中hundred, thousand, million, billion等词一般都用单数形式。
  序数词的记忆口诀:
一,二,三要单独记,
One-first, two-second, three-third
th 要从四加起, fourth, sixth,
eight , 少个t, eighth
nine 去掉e, nine-ninth
v 要用f来代替
five-fifth, twelve-twelfth
ty就成tie, twenty-twentieth
若问“几十几“或“几百几“,
只变个位记心里,
twenty-one-twenty-first

重点句子:
 1. Please have a seat.请坐。sit (v.) 动词, 意思是坐,seat(n.)意思是座位。
 2. pay attention 注意
 3. add 3 and 9 ( 3 +9)
 4. subtract 3 from 9 (9-3)
 5. multiply 3 by 9 ( 3 ×9)
 6. divide 9 by 3 ( 9÷3)
 7. 3 plus 9 equals/is 12 ( 3+9=12)
 8. 9 minus 3 equals/ is 6 (9-3=6)
 9. 3 multiplied by 9 equals/is 27( 3×9=27)
10. 9 divided by 3 equals /is 3( 9÷3=3)

  重点习题:
 1. This is a meeting of the world‘s most ______ ( power, powerful) countries.


八年级英语Chapter 4语法重难点讲解1由www.170yx.com收集及整理,转载请说明出处www.170yx.com
 2. I played tennis five ______ ( times, time) last week.
 3. The ______ ( alive , living) things can‘t live without air or water.
 4. The Chinese ______ ( invented, invention ) the compass.
 5. 13 is an ______ ( odd, even) number.
 6. He was ______ ( amusing, amused) to hear the news.
 7. ______ higher, and you will see the house.
A If you stand B. To stand C. When you stand D. stand
 8. ______ forget to wire to me when you _____ get there next Tuesday.
  A. Don‘t, will B. Please, will C. Please,/ D. Don‘t,/
 9. Could you tell me _____ to do next? Nothing more. Let‘s have a rest.
  A. why B. when C. what D. how
 10. Tell the boys _____ in the classroom.
  A. don‘t make a noise B. not to make noise
  C. not to make a noise D. not make a noise
 11. Let‘s ______ our time.
  A. not waste B. no wasting C. not to waste D. no waste
 12. _______ rude to your classmates.
A. Don‘t be B. Isn‘t C. Be not D. Aren‘t
 13. How many people are there? About _______.
A. five hundred B. five hundreds C. hundreds D. hundreds of
 14. Usually children have ______ holiday in summer.
A. an 8-week B. a 8-week C. an 8-weeks D. a 8-weeks
 15. This room is ______ than that one.
A. two time bigger more B. twice bigger
C. two time bigger D. two times more bigger
 16. When were you born? I was born ______.
  A. in Oct.8,1990 B. in 1990, Oct.8
  C. on Oct.8, 1990 D. on 1990, Oct.8


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