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英语 - 谈谈被动语态的用法

英语 - 谈谈被动语态的用法为http://www.170yx.com整理发布,类型为七年级英语教案,本站还有更多关于初一英语教案,七年级下册英语教案,新目标七年级英语教案,免费教案 - 英语教案 - 七年级英语教案的文章。
英语中及物动词有两种语态,即主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。被动语态由“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。助动词be有人称、时态和数的变化。

  一、 被动语态的用法:

  1. 一般现在时的被动语态构成:is / am / are + 及物动词的过去分词

  Our classroom is cleaned everyday.

  I am asked to study hard.

  Knives are used for cutting things.

  2. 一般过去时的被动语态构成:was / were + 及物动词的过去分词

  A new shop was built last year.

  Dinosaur eggs were laid long long ago.

  3. 现在完成时的被动语态构成:has / have + been + 及物动词的过去分词

  This book has been translated into many languages.

  Many man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries.

  4. 一般将来时的被动语态构成:will+ be + 及物动词的过去分词

  A new hospital will be built in our city.

  Many more trees will be planted next year.

  5. 含有情态动词的被动语态构成:情态动词+ be + 及物动词的过去分词

  Young trees must be watered often.

  Your mistakes should be corrected right now.

  The door may be locked inside.

  Your homework can be handed in tomorrow.

  6. 现在进行时的被动语态构成:am / is / are + being + 及物动词的过去分词

  Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.→

  My bike is being repaired by Tom now.

  They are planting trees over there. →

  Trees are being planted over there by them.

  7. 不定式的被动语态:to + be + 及物动词的过去分词

  There are two books to be read. →

  There are twenty more trees to be planted.

  二、 怎样把主动语态改成被动语态?

  把主动语态改为被动语态非常简单,可以遵循以下几个步骤:

  1. 先找出谓语动词;

  2. 再找出谓语动词后的宾语;

  3. 把宾语用作被动语态中的主语;

  4. 注意人称、时态和数的变化。

  例:1. Bruce writes a letter every week. →A letter is written by Bruce every week.

  2. Li Lei mended the broken bike this morning.→The broken bike was mended by Li Lei this morning.

  3. He has written two novels so far.→Two novels have been written by him so far.

  4. They will plant ten trees tomorrow.→Ten trees will be planted by them tomorrow.

  5. Lucy is writing a letter now.→A letter is being written by Lucy now.

  6. You must lock the door when you leave.→the door must be locked when you leave.

  三、 使用被动语态应注意的几个问题:

  1. 不及物动词无被动语态。

  What will happen in 100 years.

  The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.

  2. 有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。

  This pen writes well.

  This new book sells well.

  3. 感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带to ,但变为被动语态时,须加上to 。

  例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something

  see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something

  A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.

  The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.

  4. 如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。

  He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.

  He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.

  My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.

  5. 一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。

  We can’t laugh him. →He can’t be laugh by us.

  He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.

  The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.

  只要你掌握了以上一些方法,被动语态并不难学。


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